La experiencia del cultivo comercial de camarones marinos en estanques de producción en Costa Rica

 

Authors
Valverde-Moya, José A.; Consultor en Acuicultura; Alfaro-Montoya, Jorge; Escuela de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica,
Format
Article
Status
publishedVersion
Description

El cultivo de camarones marinos en estanques de producción en Costa Rica ha estado restringido a una pequeña fracción del territorio (1 000 ha), siendo el sector del Pacífico Norte, a ambas márgenes del Golfo de Nicoya, uno de los más productivos. En los últimos 2 años se ha logrado implementar en estas fincas un Plan de Manejo, que ha permitido obtener de manera continua y predecible niveles adecuados de producción convencional de camarón. El presente estudio describe los resultados de un Plan de Manejo utilizando densidades de siembra de 10 camarones/m2 en tres ciclos cortos (90-120 días) y 15 camarones/m2 en un ciclo largo (180 días), durante los años 2011 y 2012, en 11 estanques de fincas ubicadas en Colorado de Abangares, Guanacaste. La sobrevivencia fue mejor en los ciclos del 2011 (75% y 80%) con respecto a los del 2012 (58% y 51%) y el peso promedio final fue inferior en los ciclos cortos (11-14 g) en relación con el peso promedio ponderado, tomando en cuenta las raleas, en el ciclo largo (cerca de 20 g). Debido a que no hubo compensación en el crecimiento y la biomasa en el último ciclo con la sobrevivencia más baja, la productividad decayó a 600 kg/ha después de haberse venido dando incrementos considerables (de 1 118 a  1 263 y 1 730 kg/ha) en los tres ciclos anteriores. Se discuten posibles factores causantes de la baja productividad en este ciclo realizado a finales del 2011 e inicios del 2012.AbstractThe culture of marine shrimp in earthen ponds in Costa Rica has been restricted to a small portion of theterritory (1 000 ha), being the North Pacific region, at both margins of the Gulf of Nicoya, one of the mostproductive areas. During 2011-2012 these farms implemented a Management Plan that has allowed forcontinuously and predictably obtaining adequate levels of conventional shrimp production. The presentstudy describes the results obtained with the Management Plan used at stocking densities of 10 shrimp/m2in three short cycles (90-120 days) and 15 shrimp/m2 in one long cycle (180 days) during 2011 and 2012in 11 ponds located in Colorado de Abangares, Guanacaste. Survival was better in the 2011 cycles (75%and 80%) as compared to the 2012 cycles (58% and 51%); the final average weight was lower for the shortcycles (11-14 g) in relation to the long cycle (approximately 20 g). Because there was no compensationon growth and biomass in the last cycle with the lowest survival, productivity decreased to 600 kg/ha afterhaving obtained remarkable increments (from 1 118 to 1 263 and 1 730 kg/ha) in the three previous cycles.The possible factors causing low productivity in this cycle at the end and at the beginning of the year arediscussed in this paper.
The culture of marine shrimp in earthen ponds in Costa Rica has been restricted to a small portion of the territory (1 000 ha), being the North Pacific region, at both margins of the Gulf of Nicoya, one of the most productive areas. During 2011-2012 these farms implemented a Management Plan that has allowed for continuously and predictably obtaining adequate levels of conventional shrimp production. The present study describes the results obtained with the Management Plan used at stocking densities of 10 shrimp/m2  in three short cycles (90-120 days) and 15 shrimp/m2 in one long cycle (180 days) during 2011 and 2012 in 11 ponds located in Colorado de Abangares, Guanacaste. Survival was better in the 2011 cycles (75% and 80%) as compared to the 2012 cycles (58% and 51%); the final average weight was lower for the short cycles (11-14 g) in relation to the long cycle (approximately 20 g). Because there was no compensation on growth and biomass in the last cycle with the lowest survival, productivity decreased to 600 kg/ha after having obtained remarkable increments (from 1 118 to 1 263 and 1 730 kg/ha) in the three previous cycles. The possible factors causing low productivity in this cycle at the end and at the beginning of the year are discussed in this paper.

Publication Year
2013
Language
spa
Topic
Penaeidae, Litopenaeus vannamei, cultivo comercial, camarones. maricultura, commercial culture, shrimp, mariculture
Penaeidae; Litopenaeus vannamei; commercial culture; shrimp; mariculture
Fuente
Repositorio UNA
Get full text
http://www.revistas.una.ac.cr/index.php/revmar/article/view/5555
http://hdl.handle.net/11056/9348
Derechos
openAccess
Licencia
Revista Ciencias Marinas y Costeras por Revista Ciencias Marinas y Costeras se encuentra bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-SinDerivadas 3.0 Unported.